The Hopi and Their Jewelry

Hopi Silver Overlay Jewelry

The jewelry of the Hopi has a style distinct from that of the other Native Americans. The Hopi are known for the use of silver overlay, which utilizes a technique of fusing two layers of silver. The eye-catching and often elaborate design is on the top layer, while the bottom layers serves as a base.

It was not so long ago that the Hopi developed this technique. In fact the Hopi were not much into the making of silver. In their relative isolation on the northeastern Arizona high plains, or mesas, they were somewhat firewalled (so to speak) against external influences. Even their interaction with other Native Americans was limited.

Silversmithing of Native Americans

So while the Navajo learned and developed their silversmithing skills, a technique brought to the south-west of the American continent by the Spaniards, and which was then taken up by the Zuni, the Hopi were still practicing their own artistic heritage based on weaving and pottery. They were also adept at the making of kachina dolls, for which they deservedly remain renowned.

Time, of course, would not stand still, and even reliably isolated communities began to open up. Trading and commerce grew and the Hopi through their interaction with the Zuni exposed them to the craft of silver jewelry, at which the Zuni were now skilled. Lanyade, a Zuni, learned his silversmithing from the Navajo, and began to sell his silver jewelry. He travelled among the Hopi and Sikyatala became his student in 1898.

Sikyatala

Sikyatala is credited to be the first Hopi silversmith. It is reported that while Lanyade was at the Hopi reservation for four months, making and selling his silver jewelry pieces, Sikyatala was studiously observing and learning from the master at close range.

Sikyatala then began to use the technique of making silver jewelry. Other Hopi also began to follow and emulate the work of Sikyatala. In time the Hopi developed their own style, that of using overlay silver.

Hopi Silversmiths Paul Saufie and Fred Kabote

This technique did not so much evolve as was created by the Hopi silversmiths Paul Saufkie and Fred Kabote who were involved in a program at the Museum of Northern Arizona in 1938. After World War II the Hopi Guild was formed to encourage a program of silversmith training .

The designs of the silver overlay jewelry of the Hopi were also unique in that they adapted designs from the old broken pottery pieces of the 15th and 16th centuries. New motifs were also incorporated by the Hopi Guild, including kachina symbols.

The cross-currents in Native American jewelry nowdays mean that there are cross-influences as well. And different styles from the different currents may well find themselves evident in any piece of modern American Native jewelry.

But the fascinating development of Native American silversmiths and their crafts, in their different streams of artistic design, does not entirely obscure the original creativity. The silver overlay technique was the creation of the Hopi, even if it may now be employed by others.

Michael Kabotie

In ending, it may be noted that the work of Fred Kabote was continued by his son Michael Kabote (also spelled 'Kabotie'). Michael Kabotie recently passed away at the age of 67. He was a trail-blazer in the Native American fine arts movement, both as a Hopi artist and jeweler. His paintings were well-received, depicting traditional Hopi life. For a number of years, he also tapped the Hopi overlay technique at the Idyllwild Arts program in Southern California.

6 Tips About Extended Warrantys For Your Automobile

Like any other insurance, you get what you pay for and trying to save a few dollars may not get you the coverage you need. The following are some basic tips to keep in mind when you are considering an extended warranty policy.

1. The first this you should ask yourself is whether or not you need an extended warranty.

On average, most auto manufacturers offer a 3 year or 36,000 mile bumper to bumper warranty. However, if your drive more the 12,000 mile per year and plan to keep your vehicle for a long time, then an extended warranty may be what you are looking for to get that peace of mind.

2. How reliable is your car? You should take a look at the reliability history of your automobile. Even though this is not fail-safe, it will give you an idea of ​​how much service you can expect. This information should be kept in mind when looking at an extended warranty.

3. What is the track record and history of the company?

Here are some question to ask yourself about the company:

– How long have they been in business? – How quickly do they payout to get a repair? – Do they offer roadside assistance? – Are there testimonials from other consumers you can read? – What is they standing with Better Business Bureau and other consumer watchdogs?

4. What about the repairs, can they be done at any repair shop? It's best to choose an extended warranty that, at the very least, gives you more than one service facility to choose from. You'll most certainly appreciate this if your vehicle ever need service while you're on a road trip, miles away from home.

5. How do you know which plan is right for you? If you want bumper-to-bumper coverage the up front cost will be higher, but this offers the most coverage. If you select a higher deduction per repair and you automobile is trouble pron, you may end up spending more money in the long run. Read the fine print!

Here are some questions to ask when selecting a plan:

– Is the plan transferable or renewable? – Where can you have the repairs done? – Do you have to outlay cash up front for the repairs and wait for a reimbursement? – Does the plan offer any roadside assistance? If you travel a lot or have long commutes, this type of plan may be just right for you. With travel assistance you can get:

– car rental reimbursement – food and lodging – flat tires repaired – gas if you run on empty – a tow – and etc.

6. If you make the decision to get an extended warranty, there are three type to choose from: – Manufacturer: Typically, no problems about the cost of a repair but this has the highest up front costs and repair shop may be limited in your area. – Dealer: has a lower up front cost and you get the plan at the same place you bought the vehicle, but there is usually only one point of service for repairs. – Independent: has the lowest up front costs, typically 30% to 50% lower than manufacturers and dealers, however, coverage may not be as expected.

Superdry Clothing – Sizes Explained

The problem is that Superdry sizes 'appear to be different' from other brands in the market (I've put that in inverted commas for a reason). That and the internet is plagued of misleading information on this topic. I've decided to sort this out once and for all. Or at least until Superdry change things up again. Superdry is actually very accurately sized. I know you were not expecting to hear that so I will explain why.

The Problem with Standards
There is an international standard for clothing sizes. The International Standards Organization, also known as ISO. They are the governing body for all sorts of standards, including a standard measure for the sizing of clothes. This should, in theory, give us a reference to be able to accurately choose clothes and convert between US, UK, European and other sizes. But it does not. There are problems with the international standards.

Getting too deep into these standards is beyond the scope of this article so I'm going to cut to the chase. There problem comes in two parts; Using letter codes like Small, Medium, Large and Extra Large and clothing manufacturers taking liberties with the established standards. They are not obliged to conform to the standard so there is not likely to be any change in the future. When compared to other clothing brands, a good rule of thumb is that Superdry clothing is approximately one size smaller. They are sized to fit properly but as most other clothing manufacturers are getting more and more generous with their sizing, it's better to go for one size bigger in Superdry clothes. For example, if you are usually a medium then you buy a large in Superdry.

Superdry Size Chart
Superdry clothing complies with the international standards; the problem is that other clothing companies do not. Superdry also use letter codes, so there must be a look up table to convert a size from Small, to chest size or women's dress size. If you've looked at their website you would have noticed that there is not such a helpful table anywhere to be found. I've developed a Superdry size chart.

Men's Superdry Clothing Size Chart

Sizes are chest sizes, measured in inches.

Extra Small = 36 "
Small = 38 "
Medium = 40 "
Large = 42 "
Extra Large = 44 "
Extra Extra Large = 46 "

Men's waist sizes are pretty straight forward. They are all in inches, the standard measure so you should not have any problems selecting your size.

Women's Superdry Size Chart
The UK and US dress sizes are matched to the ISO standards and may not necessarily match up to the size you would normally buy in other clothing brands. It is intended that you go by the actual measurements (in inches).

Extra Small = UK Size 8 / US Size 4 = Bust 34 ", Waist 25.5", Hip 36.5 "
Small = UK Size 10 / US Size 6 = Bust 34 ", Waist 26.5", Hip 37.5 "
Medium = UK Size 12 / US Size 8 = Bust 35 ", Waist 27.5", Hip 38.5 "
Large = UK Size 14 / US Size 10 = Bust 36 ", Waist 28.5", Hip 39.5 "

Buying Superdry Clothing
Probably the best advice I can give you is try before you buy but what if you do not have a store near you? Is this case you are left with the only option, to shop online where you can not try the item on before you buy it. There are exceptions however. Some stores, like Nucleus, offer free return postage on internet orders so in effect you can try the stuff on and send it back if it does not fit. It's a slight hassle getting to the post office but at least it will not cost you anything.

Differences Between Damask, Brocade, and Jacquard

Often times, uneducated individuals use the terms damask, brocade, and Jacquard interchangeably with one another. It can often confuse those who are unfamiliar with the world of fabrics. Jacquard is a decorative or woven pattern that is created by using a Jacquard attachment on a loom. The attachment resembles the punch card on a piano. It is purported to offer better versatility and fabric control for the operator of the loom. The Jacquard technique can be applied to a variety of fabrics, and it is commonly used on brocade and damask fabrics. It is commonly used in a variety of apparel and home goods, from tablecloths to bedding.

Brocade is defined as a lavishly decorated, shuttle woven fabric. It is primarily woven from silk; although, it is possible to find brocade constructed from a blend of silk and synthetic fibers. Often, it will be embroidered with gold or silver thread. Brocade can trace its origins back to India, where weaving is a traditional art form. It is typically woven on a loom, and it may or may not be woven using the Jacquard technique. It is also characterized by the manner in which the brocaded or broached parts of the fabric hang in loose groups or are clipped away. Although the scenes and patterns on brocade appear to have been embroidered, the scenes are actually woven into the fabric using advanced weaving techniques that involve manipulating the weft and weave of the fabric. The most common types of scenes depicted on brocade fabric are those of floral prints.

Damask, similar to brocade, is a fabric that features woven scenes of floral patterns, intricate geometric designs, or simple scenes of domestic life. It may be woven of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibers. However, it is most commonly created from silk. It is primarily different from brocade in the fact that its woven fabric pattern is reversible, while that of brocade is not. Similarly, shorter weft patterns in damask allow for more subtle effects in the fabric to be created as it plays off of shadow and light. Damask weaves also contain a higher thread count than that of brocade. Double damask weaves are the highest quality of damask produced; however, it is also the most expensive.